Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Civil Service Merit System Essays Civil Service Merit System Essay Civil Service Merit System Essay At the beginning of the 21st century, civil service requires a qualified staff able to meet social demands and changes. To some extend, effective arrangements for governance within the civil service and between the civil services are fundamental elements of a democratic system of the government. In public administration, there are a range of changes from administrative matters in the way business is conducted in the civil service, to legislative changes that provide greater accountability and openness for the work of the civil service. Today, merit system is one of the main tools which help to ensure effective selection, promoting and appointing of staff. Merit system aims to Ã¢â¬Å"maintain high standards of integrity, conduct, and concern for the public interestÃ¢â¬ 1. In modern environment, the state merit system regulations, to conform with the standards, bar employees from participating in political activities except to express their views and cast their ballots as citizens. They also are to prohibit disqualification of persons from taking examinations or holding office because of political or religious opinions. State agencies are also required to prepare, adopt, install, and administer classification2 and compensation plans for all positions in the agency, such plans to be based upon investigation 1. Camoes, P. J. , Ruhil, A. What Lies Beneath: The Political Roots of State Merit Systems. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 13 (1), (2003): 27. 2. Merit System Principles. 2007. 04 June 2007 www. nhpa. org/Nine_Merit_Principles. ppt and analysis of the duties and responsibilities of each position. If the state agency wishes, its rules may provide that incumbents of positions at the time of the issuance of the standards may be given preference in the examinations to the extent of a waiver of minimum requirements of education and experience for admission to the examinations, and of retention if they receive a mere passing mark in the examination. The Department of Civil Service develops and proposes the following types of examination under the merit system: Ã¢â¬Å"open-competitive, promotion, transition, and continuous recruitmentÃ¢â¬ . The Federal legislation underlines that vacancies are to be filled whenever practicable by promotion of a qualified permanent employee of the administrative agency upon recommendation by the agency head4. It is stated by the Board that the application of the standards will promote a career service A system of service ratings is to be maintained. Removal of permanent employees may take place only for cause, or for reasons of curtailment of work or lack of funds. In the event of removal permanent employees will have the right of appeal to an impartial body through an established procedure provided for in the merit system. According to standards developed by Career Mobile Office: Ã¢â¬Å"Open-competitive examinations are open to anyone who possesses the minimum qualifications as listed on the examination announcement. Promotion examinations are open to permanently appointed State employees. Transition examinations are open to permanently appointed State employees. Continuous Recruitment examinations may be either open-competitive or promotionalÃ¢â¬ 5. _____________________ 3. Ã¢â¬Å"Employee ServicesÃ¢â¬â¢ 2007. New York State. 04 June 2007 careermobilityoffice. cs. state. ny. us/cmo/merit_system. htm 4. Dresang, Dennis L. Public Personal Management and Public Policy. (Longman. 2001) 193-194. 5. Ã¢â¬Å"Employee ServicesÃ¢â¬â¢ 2007. New York State. 04 June 2007 careermobilityoffice. cs. state. ny. us/cmo/merit_system. htm In many of the states, however, the general charge to set standards has resulted in plans at least for the development of a merit system of selection and in a few instances such systems have been adopted and examinations given. In some cases departments concerned see the need to establish such a system and are willing to begin, but have no money to finance examinations. The degree to which a state merit plan affecting public assistance personnel carries beyond the state staff depends upon a number of factors; the pattern is a different one for each state6. Among the determinants are the extent to which a state civil service law affects counties and cities; and to what extent and in relation to what factors state public assistance departments control local programs. Certain more or less autonomous local public assistance departments may come under a merit plan independently of the state situation if the county or municipality concerned has a local civil service commission which selects personnel in some or in all branches of local government 7. The influence of the local labor union within the relief agency, and of the more powerful parent groups behind it with which it is affiliated, has been a strong new force in advancing the spread of civil service coverage in certain jurisdictions.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
12 question - Essay Example Conversely, a staffing plan is an outline of what an organization will do to support the implementation of their choice of staffing strategy (Bechet 7). In this regard, a staffing strategy is long-term while a staffing plan is a short-term strategic plan. In addition, a staffing plan supports the implementation of a staffing strategy. The process first involves a clear understanding of my company in order to identify what drives changes in the staffing levels of the company. Thereafter, the next step will involve the identification of the factors that drive staffing needs in a company and the constraints regarding staffing. In addition, I would also define the changes inÃ a companysÃ roles and positionsÃ before attempting to define the staffing levels. The next step will involve incorporating a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques to determine the staffing levels in the company (Bechet 89). During staffing, uncontrollable staffing actions include positions for which candidates have accepted offers, but they have not assumed their roles yet; normal retirement; and voluntary turnover. On the other hand, controllable actions include early retirement programs, termination for cause, and layoffs or reduction in force (Bechet 55). Span of control is an appropriate example of a staffing ratio. In this case, this ratio relates the required number of supervisors required for a job in relation to the amount of workers under supervision, and not in relation to the amount of work done by these supervisors (Bechet 93). For example, in a job that requires 1,000 technicians, I would apply a span of control ratio of 1 supervisor for every 20 technicians. In effect, I would require 50 supervisors for this job. The first solution within the context of the 30,000-foot approach involves explaining to the managers the importance of the new approach in achieving
Friday, February 7, 2020
Crossing Borders of the United States - Term Paper Example Not only has the population increase, but the immigration also influenced the nation culturally, socially, and politically. The LatinosÃ¢â¬â¢ population growth is higher than the population growth in the blacks. That is why the Spanish language has spread all over the country. There are The Spanish language has spread nationwide, and it is the accepted language in the workplace. There are also various Asian languages spoken all over the country. There are also many bilingual and multilingual schools have been established nationwide (Wilkinson 1). 2.A. Interests and Incentives for Immigration Men move from one country to another for various complex reasons. Some of them are forced to move out of their home country due to some serious disagreement or prejudices, while the others willingly move abroad. Whatever be the reasons, the immigrants face various social, cultural and other difficulties in the new nation. Most of the migrants courageously face these difficulties mainly to recov er their present economic status, as about all of them likely to move to the more developed nations for better earnings. After globalization, the movement of the labor force has been increased. 2.B. Social status and working condition of the immigrants in the receiver countries Henry in her paper explores that immigrants in the United Nations is socially accepted depending on the international position of their home country. She cited examples that the immigrants from the Northwest European countries are always socially accepted with high status. After globalization, people from Japan are also getting high social status in the country. The social status of China is day by day growing after 1990s due to its economic and armed forcesÃ¢â¬â¢ strength. Immigrants from the African countries are always been treated with lowest status (Henry, 1). Orrenius and Zavodny in their paper indicates that the immigrants work in more risky jobs in their workplaces that their native counterparts. Th ey found that the immigrants take on more risky ventures in more dangerous industries.Ã
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
USA and Puerto Rico Essay It is a matter of fact that USA is one of the most powerful countries situated in North America, whereas Puerto Rico is only the territory of the USA, although with a status of Commonwealth. Puerto Rico is situated in the northeastern Caribbean. It is necessary to underline that the nature of political debates between USA and Puerto Rico is ongoing subject not only within two states, but also in United Nations. (Morris 1995) The USA is a constitutional republic having the oldest constitution in the world. USA government is representative democracy and operates through the congressional system specified by Constitution. The government is thus represented by three branches: legislative (Congress is made up Senate and House of Representatives), executive (the President and the Cabinet), judiciary (the Supreme Court). (Scott 1983) Puerto Rico has approximately the similar government, however, differences are evident. Puerto RicoÃ¢â¬â¢s government is Republican system made up of three branches as well as the USAÃ¢â¬â¢: legislative (Senate and House of Representatives), executive (governor), judiciary (court). The difference: executive branch in USA is president, whereas in Puerto Rico is governor. (Morris 1995) USA economic system is capitalist mixed economy presented by corporations, private firms and individuals performing macroeconomic decisions. (Scott 1983) Puerto RicoÃ¢â¬â¢s economy can be described as agricultural, whereas in USA the agriculture plays a minor role. USA largest economic sector is services employing three quarters of labor force. The country is rich in natural resources such as precious metals, petroleum and coal. (Scott 1983) Puerto Rico doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have so strong economic potential and its main contributor is crops, especially sugar. However, the economic conditions in the country have been improved due to investments in technology, petrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. (Morris 1995) In conclusion it is necessary to say that USA compared with Puerto Rico has stronger economic and political potential and more significant influence on global scale. (Morris 1995) References Morris, Nancy. (1995). Puerto Rico: Culture, Politics, and Identity. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. Scott, John Anthony. (1983). The Ballad of America: The History of the United States in Song and Story. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Positive rights are rights that everyone is entitled to including: the right to a public education, access to public roads, and the right to health care. There are no guarantees when it comes to life, but having health insurance makes a huge difference with preventing, diagnosing, and treating diseases. Of course having insurance itself is a great resource to ensure medical care and containing costs, but not all insurance programs are created equal. Insurance programs have caveats, exclusions, varying co-payments, and access to certain doctors and hospitals, which creates an ethical dilemma. Receiving the best care is subjective in most cases, but with money you can buy almost anything, including the best care. Although those living in poverty are given access to healthcare, that does not mean they receive the best or equal care as those who are wealthy. Living in a capitalist society, the richest Americans enjoy larger homes, nicer cars, better education and even health care. Even if we lived in a capitalist society where everyone had access to the same basic healthcare program, the rich would still be able to afford better care. The wealthy are able to pay more in co-payments, prescription costs, and the ability to go outside of the healthcare system in this country to seek help. When you have the disposable resources then the sky is the limit, where the poor have very limited options. They will be confined to their healthcare coverage program and do not have the luxury of seeking additional assistance. Ã¢â¬Å"Poor patients often receive less quality care in the hospital, have more barriers to recovery, and experience higher morbidity and mortality than do patients with higher incomesÃ¢â¬ (Dracup). The United States is ... ...ndards and practices are more uniform based on circumstance and not based on loopholes, exceptions or lack of insurance. Everyone should be given the same preventive care and be able to receive the same treatment options regardless of location, income, or age. Competition in the marketplace can be good, but there are many complexities with healthcare and many people can slip through the cracks and others can be shortchanged. Works Cited C. Wayne Sells and Robert Wm. Blum, "Morbidity and Mortality among US Adolescents: An Overview of Data and Trends," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Vol. 86, No. 4 (April, 1996), pgs. 513-519. R. Wilkinson and K. Pickett, The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger, Bloomsbury Press, NY, 2009, in particular pages 49- 173. Income Inequalities , Health and the Garrison State by Christopher Schaefer
Sunday, January 12, 2020
* The company has a warehouse which supplies goods to shops as well as to sports teams by mail order * The company sells a wide range of sports goods in it shops this includes clothing, footwear and equipment for sports. * The shops also sell exercise equipment; however these large items are not kept in stock but are ordered from the supplier as required. * The company supplies match strips, to order, in team colours for different sports * The company supplies other team merchandise with team logo; these are supplied through a mail order service. * Sell sports trophies which can be engraved if required. * The company also supplies sports clothing in bulk to schools Different types of customers for GO4IT Sports The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s customers include: * Schools * Sports teams for all sports such as football, rugby, tennis, athletics and golf * General customers * The shops which are supplied by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s warehouse Describe the functions of each section within the shops and Head Office, paying particular attention to Administration in shops and Human Resources in Head Office Functions of each section within the shops Administration * Each shop has a Branch Manager who has overall responsibility for the running of the shop. * The assistant manager and head of administration section report directly the branch manager. * The staff keeps account of the money taken through the EPOS terminals by comparing money received with EPOS records. * The administration staff produce and send correspondence from the shop as well as receiving correspondence. * Organise for a trophy to be engraved by contacting the local engraver. * Emailing weekly orders for goods to the warehouse * Producing confirmation purchase orders for goods and services * Checking invoices against goods received and work done and passing these to Head Office for payment Clothing sales * The clothing sales section has a clothing sales manager who the clothing sales staff and footwear sales staff report to. * Clothing Sales staff assist customers in choosing appropriate clothing and provide advice for those who wish to purchase clothing * The footwear sales staffs assist customers and provide advice for those who wish to purchase footwear. Equipment sales * The Equipment sales section has an Equipment sales manager. The general sales staff and specialist sales staff report to the Equipment sales manager. * The General sales staff operate the EPOS terminals, they scan the barcodes of every items during purchase and handing of receipts. * The Specialist sales staffs provide assistance and specialist advice and information for customers purchasing more advanced equipment. Functions within the Head Office * The Managing Director of GO4IT sports is responsible for all aspects of the day to day running of the business. The two directors which are: sales marketing director and the finance and administration director report to the managing director Sales and Marketing * The sales and marketing director is responsible for the mail order operation as well as advertising and promoting the business * A buying manager is responsible for locating the goods to be sold and negotiating contracts for their supply. * The buying manager ensures the right volume and type of goods are supplied at the right time to maximise profit. Finance and Administration * The Finance and Administration director is responsible for all other functions within the Head Office. This includes administration, Human Resources(HR) and finance * The Administration assistant, HR executive, chief accountant and ICT support executive report to the Finance and Administration director Finance * Keep records of all financial transactions on the head office server, including the income from sales for each shop and mail order, payments for goods purchased, payments for engraving contractors and staff wages. * Records are used to produce monthly and annual accounts for shareholders and Inland Revenue. * Generate VAT (value added tax) returns once a quarter for customs and excise. * Arrange for the amount due to be paid. Human Resource (HR) The functions of the HR Department are; * Staff recruitment and training * Place advertisements for staff * Send out and receive application forms * Organise interviews and provide contracts for successful applicants * Keeping standard personnel records on a database along with records of training courses attended by members of staff and any qualifications they obtain. * Determine what further training each staff member requires and how best to provide it * Book the member of staff on an external training course/ if many members require training organise for a trainer to deliver the course Ã¢â¬Ëin houseÃ¢â¬â¢. Task1 Identify different types of supplier to the shops and warehouse and describe relationships between these suppliers and the departments/individuals within the company Warehouse Supplier What is supplied Who orders it How and when it is ordered Wholesaler Clothing and footwear Warehouse manager Order is made by fax once a month but can place special order by telephone if stocks of a particular item falls faster then expected Specialist manufacturers Sports equipment Buying Manager The buying manager negotiates contracts at the beginning of each season either by telephone or visit, for the supply of a certain quantity. Shops Supplier What is supplied Who orders it How and when it is ordered Local Engraver (external Contractor) Engraved Trophy Administration Assistant Administration Assistant telephones local engraver. The engraver collects the trophy from the shop with a confirmation purchase order detailing work the required. Warehouse Clothing and footwear Administration staff Branch manager hands an annotated stock list to Administration staff who e-mails warehouse Task 2 An analysis of the processes for recording sales in a shop and for mail order sales in Head Office. Shop Information Required * Product bar code or numerical code if bar code unreadable * Quantity bought * If sale is to be paid by credit card * If paying by cash the Amount to be tendered From where this is obtained and how it is captured * product code by barcode scanner * numerical code keyed in using a keypad * quantity keyed in by till operator * credit card yes/no keyed in The processing and calculations required * look up item in computer * display item name and price on screen * multiply price by quantity * if on sale, reduce total price by 50% * display total on screen * if credit card = yes, generate credit card receipt for signature The form and content of any output * on-screen / display message * paper till receipt * paper credit card receipt * Contains prices. items, sales items highlighted with words Ã¢â¬Å"ON SALEÃ¢â¬ , store address, time of sale, till operator name Mail Order in Head Office Information Required * Team details e.g. team name, name and address of contact person, the sport, the colour(s) and design of shirt/vest, position of logo e.g. VTL(vest top left), picture of team logo and team number * Product colour * Product quantity required * Product code * Colour code/ X is entered If a non standard colour * Size and number of colours in logo * Amount of deposit paid From where this is obtained and how it is captured * Team details from completed order form from a mail order brochure entered onto data screen on computer using input devices such as keyboard and mouse * Product colour from completed order form from a mail order brochure entered onto data screen on computer using input devices such as keyboard and mouse * Product quantity required from completed order form from a mail order brochure entered onto data screen on computer using input devices such as keyboard and mouse * Product code from completed order form from a mail order brochure entered onto data screen on computer using input devices such as keyboard and mouse * Colour code/ X is entered If a non standard colour from completed order form from a mail order brochure entered onto data screen on computer using input devices such as keyboard and mouse * Size and number of colours in logo from completed order form from a mail order brochure entered onto data screen on computer using input devices such as keyboard and mouse * Amount of deposit paid from completed order form from a mail order brochure entered onto data screen on computer using input devices such as keyboard and mouse * Team logo captured using a scanner and stand alone computer The processing and calculations required * look up item in computer * display item name and price on screen * Calculate price of embroidery by multiplying number of logos by price * multiply price by quantity * Calculate sub total if less than Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½100, Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½5 is added for postage and packaging * Calculate and add VAT to give total price The form and content of any output * on-screen / display message * Invoice * Contains prices. items, store address, store phone and fax number, date of sale, invoice number, team contact person details, sub total, VAT, total, Less deposit, total due. Task 3 Outlining the current ICT systems used by GO4IT Sports, in particular, Finance within Head Office and Administration within a Shop Administration within a shop * Each shop has a number of Electronic Point of Sales (EPOS) terminals with barcode readers and card readers. * Telephone connection to banking system * Small Local Area Network (LAN) of three computers * Laser Printer * Branch managers computer acts as a server * Dial up modem Software used includes * Word processing * Spreadsheet applications Finance within Head Office * Number of workstations * Local are network (LAN) * Single Server * Fast laser printer * Slower laser printer * Bar code reader * ISND line Software used includes * Word processing * Spreadsheet applications * Database management software * Stock control software Task 3 Analysing the purpose and operation of the main ICT systems used for sales in each shop and the ICT systems using within the warehouse Shops * Each shop has an EPOS terminal with barcode readers and card readers. Stock data is held on dedicated server connected to the EPOS terminals. * There is also a telephone connection to the banking system for authorisation of the card payments. * The barcode reader is used to scan the barcode of each item and the product code it contains is used to look the product description and price from stock database * When items are scanned total price is calculated. This includes the VAT, the system calculates the net value of the items, and all of this is printed on the receipt. * If customer pays by cash, member of staff enters the amount tendered; the EPOS terminal calculates the change due. This is printed on receipt and given to customer * If customer wishes to pay by credit or debit card the member of staff swipes the card through the card reader. The card details are checked by the banking system and if the transaction is approved an authorisation code is transmitted to the EPOS terminal. * The authorisation Code and card details and amount debited are printed on receipt which is handed to customer to sign with card and items purchased. Warehouse * Stand alone computer * Scanner * Computer controlled embroidery machine * Workstation * Laser printer * Stock control software has separate screens for incoming and outgoing goods. * All goods have a product code which is contained in a barcode. When goods arrive in the warehouse the barcode of each product is read and the quantity entered via the keyboard. * This data is used to update stock database. * For every order picked up the staff use the barcode reader to input the product code and the keyboard to enter the quantity removed from stock. These items are deducted from stock database. Task 3 Recommending and explaining improvements/ extensions to shop systems Methods for improving stock control and the re-ordering of stock, as well as integration of systems within GO4IT sports. * A dedicated server could be used instead of the branch managerÃ¢â¬â¢s computer acting as a server, if the branch managerÃ¢â¬â¢s computer crashes then that would leave the other computers stranded without a printer and no access to the internet. * ISDN connection would improve communication giving workers a faster connection to send e-mails internally. Dial up connections are not as reliable and are slower so information being sent will be limited due to connection speed of dial up. * There should be a centralised database put into place. This is where all the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s data is held in one place and the computers in the company are networked. This central database can be used by anyone within the company provided they have been given access through a password. This will be a very resourceful way of storing company data, as it will prevent the problem of data duplication. * Sales based ordering where automatic re-ordering takes place of goods from the warehouse using the sales information from the checkouts. * To increase the efficiency of communication between the supplier and GO4IT sports I would recommend the introduction of EDI (electronic data interchange); the system is similar to email and allows users to exchange invoices, delivery notes, orders and receipts over the telephone network. Security * Log in pages requiring a specific unique user name requiring a private password to track who logs on and off to restrict users Possible problems for suggested improvements * One of the problems that may arise is the finance to cover the costs for the installation of the systems in place. * Also addition of new feature will mean that staff are not familiar with it and training for staff will be required. Benefits of using new technology EDI Advantages * It is much faster, as work does not have to be printed, it is on the screen * The EDI system is easy to use and work can be sent off very easily * Information can be sent to other companies, in less then a few minutes instead of days. * The company can be linked up with their bank, suppliers and customers. * Will minimize the amount of paperwork and business can be transacted much faster and more efficiently then is possible through the normal post. Disadvantages * For EDI, computers are relied on, therefore if the systems go down; it will have a huge of affect on the company. * It is very costly for the installation of EDI * The organization has to research into which system would be best for the company Ecommerce Advantages * Majority of the work of GO4IT sports can be done just through the internet, making it much easier. * This would means a lot less people will have to be employed this will result in huge savings for the company as most transaction will be electronic. * Currently GO4IT sports uses a lot of time to get into contact with suppliers by using the telephone, which can be tedious due to the telephone being engaged; by using e-commerce orders could be automatically electronically sent straight to the suppliers. * Team contacts currently have to post the payment to the company, which is very time consuming and not very secure and with using ecommerce an electronic funds transfer could be made. * Promotion of the company can be improved as it is all online presentation of online advertising can be enhanced. * This will also enable the company to advertise their products online and also allow customers to purchase the products directly from the site using their debit/credit card. They can place the desired items in the virtual shopping trolley. The company can be fully based on the internet, making it easier for the company and also for customers. Disadvantages * A close relationship between the retailer and supplier is required in order for the system to work * Returning products online will prove to be difficult. The customer may be put off when these areas are taken into account. As the customer will question how to send the goods back to their source? Who pays for the return postage? Will the refund be paid? Will I be left with nothing? How long will it take? Compared to offline experience of returning goods to a shop and it is frustrating for the customer. * Privacy, security, payment, identity, contract. Many issues arise Ã¢â¬â privacy of information, security of that information and payment details, whether or not payment details (eg credit card details) will be misused, identity theft, contract, and, whether we have one or not, what laws and legal jurisdiction apply. MIS(management information systems) For the Buying Manager I would recommend the following improvements: * MIS could produce an analysis of patterns of sales in the company * MIS would be able to identify peak production needs * What if type questions could be applied to different patterns of sales The features of the MIS system that could be used by the branch manager are: * Production costs can be based on raw material costs * MIS could be used to carry out analysis automatically * Results could be displayed in graphs which are easy to understand * Monthly graphs could be produced of price comparison with competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s goods or services resulting from regular market research. * Planning, directing, controlling and forecasting decisions. Both managers would benefit from the following points of the MIS system: * Warnings could be set if production costs exceed budget. * Warnings could be set if stocks fall below fixed level.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
And, the understanding and subsequent elevation of the systemÃ¢â¬â¢s constraints will enhance the performance of the system. Within the above mentioned context, throughput accounting has become an important development in the modern conventions of accounting allowing management accountants to comprehend the significance and contribution of the constrained resources to aggregate profitability. The concept of throughput accounting does not largely focus on the efficiencies and performance based on the efficiencies instead it takes into account the different types of constraints which can be in the shape of time constraints and policy constraints. Steps involved in throughput accounting Goldratt (1990) contends that the working principles of throughput accounting or theory of constraints extend a focus to a continuous improvement process and this principle is comprised of five focusing steps as elaborated below: (1) Identify the systemÃ¢â¬â¢s constraint(s): Constraints may be relating to physical (e. g. machines, people, materials, demand level) or managerial (Rahman, 1998, p. 338). Generally, organizations have limited physical constraints but face numerous managerial constraints in the form of procedures, policies, methods and rules. In this regard, Goldratt (1993) devised a technique called a Current Reality Tree for identifying policy constraints. We will write a custom essay sample on Throughput Accounting or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page Moreover, non-constraint resources comprise of productive capacity (capacity supporting the constraint throughput) and the idle capacity (capacity to safeguard against system disruptions and capacity not currently required) (Lockamy and Cox, 1994).